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Suresh Gyan Vihar University International Journal of Environment, Science and Technology

Volume 4, Issue 2, August 2018, pp. 48-52

ISSN: 2394-9570

 

 

 

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM L.: A REVIEW

 

 

Shaily Sharma1, Sarmad Moin1*

 

1School of Applied Sciences,

Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur – 302017 Rajasthan

Email id: moinsarmad@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

 

Cardiospermum halicacabum L. (C. halicacabum) plant is as old as human civilization. The common name of this plant is balloon wine/ love in puff/ heart pea. All over the world, it harvested in backyards for its medicinal and food value. Whole plant and seeds considered useful. Seeds is in black coloured with a white heart shaped spot. It contains polysterols, saponins, alkanoids, small amount of long chain fatty acids. Polysterols have anti redness effect. It shows similar effects to corticosteroid. Cortisone creams contains similar and the active substance in a mother tincture. This natural cream is effective in treating Eczema, burns, redness or rheumatic disease. They show anti-inflammatory, antifilarial, anti-parasitic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-hyperglycemic, anticonvulsant, anticarcinogenic activities properties. C. halicacabum used in the treatment of dermatitis. Plant seeds are good for arthritis. They immensely used as analgesic, laxative, anti-phlogistic. The drug show vasodepresant activity which, is considered to be transient in nature. The extract of Balloon wine is a good herbal treatment of cancer. It effects in inhibiting the immuno-suppressive action of drugs.

 

Keywords: Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Balloon wine, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Ant parasitic, Antidiarrheal, Antipyretic

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The average height of C. halicacabum L. is about three metres and it is a shrub. It is mostly branched from the base. Plant uses tendrils to climb in the surrounding vegetation and for the support of themselves. The stems of this plant finds to scramble all over the ground. Based on commodities, C. halicacabum L. is eco-friendly and bio-friendly. C. halicacabum L. has been used for treatment of rheumatism, stiffness of limbs, snake bite, its root for nervous diseases, as a diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, laxative, refrigerant, stomachic, and sudorific. Leaves and stalks used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, and headache and as a poultice for swellings (Chopra et al., 1986). The herbal products are also formed which are useful like gels, creams. They grow in ever wet or in seasonal climates. Shoots used in health care and fodder needs. C. halicacabum is belong to spindaceae family (Boonmars et al., 2005). The various plant parts used in traditional medicine system for treatment of anti-inflammatory (Sadigue et al. 1987), antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas campentris pv. Sesami, Xanthomonas campestris pv. Malvacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. (Raman et al., 1998), antipyretic (GuribFakim and Sewaj 1992), analgesic (Dhar et al., 1968), anthelmintic (Gopalakrishnan et al. 1976).

 

PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

 

Result of Phytochemical analysis indicated that C. halicacabum contain tannin, saponin, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoids, cardiac, dlycosides, alkaloids, anthraquinones (Annadurai et al., 2013).

 

THERAPEUTIC USES

 

  1. halicacabum shows various medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antidiarrhoeal, anxiolytic, rubefacient, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, and anticarcinogenic. Earache can be treated by using leaves juice as eardrop. It enhances hair growth. Leaves of C. halicacabum are used to treat scalp. The extract is a good herbal treatment for skin redness. It acts as modulators in reactions. This gives antipruritic properties. This plant does not forms hematoma hence, can be used for long term. It is effective in neurodermatitis like illness in chronic stages cardiac glycosides found in small quantities in the extracts (Deepan et al., 2012). It also inhibits the action of drugs. Hence, it acts as immunosuppressive. Various skin problem as well as eczema can also be treated by the extract. Root extract are also used. Roots give quick remedy to pain, swelling, arthritis, body ache. Diarrhoea can also be treated by consuming leaves of this plant. Extract of roots are useful to cure hemorrhoids. Herbal tea can also be prepared.

 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES

 

  1. halicacabum works as diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, laxative, refrigerant, stomachic and sudorific and has antibacterial, anti-diarrheal, antioxidant activities, suppresses TNF production, exhibits anticancer, vaso depressant effect, rheumatism, severe bronchitis, snakebite. Antiulcer, analgesic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, antifilarial, and antipyretic (Raman et al., 1998; Rao et al., 2006; Kumaran and Karunakaran, 2006; Babu and Krishnakumari, 2006; Sheeba and Asha, 2006; Gopalakrishnan et al., 1976; Asha and Pushpangadan, 1999).

 

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

 

  1. halicacabum extract shown antimicrobial activity against the pathogens viz. Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and Streptococcus sp. (Gopal et al., 2014).

 

ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY

 

  1. halicacabum exhibited antipyretic activity against yeast-induced pyrexia in rats (Asha and Ushpangadan, 1999).

 

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY

 

The herbal extracts have shown inhibition against the fungi. Mahmud et al., 2009 reported that the extract of C. halicacabum L. shown antifungal activity against human pathogens (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans), animal pathogens (Microsporillum gypsiccus, Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and plant pathogens (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium sp.) (Shareef et al., 2012).

 

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

 

Methanol extract of C. halicacabum shown antioxidant potential in vitro systems. The extract of C. halicacabum indicates that it has good potential as a source for natural antioxidants. This prevent it from free radical-mediated oxidative damage (Joshi et al., 2017).

 

ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY

 

Antidiabetic effect of C. halicacabum ethanolic extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats shown good activity. Many flavonoids present in the extract. These flavonoids reported as the antidiabetic principles. The leaf extract of C. halicacabum help to increase the activity of glucokinase and decrease the activity of glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6 phosphatase in the liver (Rajeswari and Sriidevi, 2014).

 

ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY

 

A topical herbal gel formulated by C. halicacabum and Vitex negundo, which shown promising results for the treatment of arthritis (Rajasekaran et al., 2016).

 

ANTICOVULSANT ACTIVITY

 

Petroleum ether fraction of C. halicacabum shown anticovulsant activity against electroshock induced convulsions in rats (Vetrichelvan et al., 2000).

 

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY

 

Ethanolic extract of possess good anti-inflammatory activity against mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (Sheeba and Asha, 2009).

 

ANTIPARASITIC ACTIVITY

 

Extracts of C. halicacabum tested against third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Aqueous extract of C. halicacabum exerted more rapid effect on larval motility than that of the alcoholic extract (Boonmars et al., 2005).

 

ANTICANCER ACTIVITY

 

The presence of phytocompounds, the extract of C. halicacabum showed anticancer activity against the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (Sagadevan et al., 2013).

 

NEUROPROTECTIVE ROLE

 

Methanolic extract of C. halicacabum potentially improved memory. It also significantly decreased the whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. Dementia is a type of neuro disease in which progressive brain dysfunctions that leads to (Kukkar et al., 2014).

 

CONCLUSION

 

  1. halicacabum has enormous medicinal value, which, used to treat simple ailments to chronic diseases because of presence of their bioactive phytochemical constituents. It possess significant properties that support its role in medicinal field. It possesses anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antiparasitic, antipyretic, antifilarial, anxiolytic, anticancer activity.

 

REFERENCES

 

Chopra, R.N and Nayar, I.C. and Chopra, S.L.R. 1986. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.

 

Sadigue J, Chandra T, Thenmozhi V, Elango V (1987) Biochemical modes of action of Cassia occidentalis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in Inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 19:201–212.

 

Raman N, Radha A, Ravi M (1998) Antibacterial activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum against human and plant pathogens. Indian Drugs 35:29–31.

 

GuribFakim A, Sewraj MD (1992) Studies on the antisickling properties of extracts of Sideroxylon Puberulum,Faujasiopsis Flexuosa, Cardiosperum halicacabum and Pelargonium grareolens. Planta Med 58:648–649.

 

Dhar LM, Dhar MM, Dharwan NB, Mehrotra NB, Ray C (1968). Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Indian J Exp Biol 6:232–247.

 

Gopalakrishnan C, Dhananjayah R, Kameswaran L (1976) Studies on the pharmacological actions of Cardiospermum helicacabum. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 20:203–208.

 

Annadurai A., Elangovan V., Velmurugan S. and Ravikumar R 2013 Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2013, 4(5):302-308.

 

Deepan T, Alekhya V, Saravanakumar P, Dhanaraju MD (2012). Phytochemical and Anti-Microbial Studies on the Leaves Extracts of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. Adv. Biol. Res. 6(1):14-18.

 

Rao NV, Prakash KC, Kumar SM. Pharmacological investigation of Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn.) in different animal models of diarrhoea. Indian J Pharmacol. 2006; 38 Suppl 5:3 46-49.

 

Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ. Antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum. J Pharm Biol. 2006; 44(2): 146-151.

 

Babu KC, Krishnakumari S. Anti-­‐inflammatory and antioxidant compound, rutin in Cardiospermum halicacabum leaves. Anc Sci Life 2005;25(2):47-49.

 

Asha   VV,   Ushpangadan   P   (1999)   Antipyretic activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 37(4):411- 414.

 

Gopal, RM, K. Prabhakaran, C. B. Pradeepa Devi, S. Amirtham and Settu. A, Phytochemical and antibacterial activities of Cardiospermum halicacabum leaf extract. Scholars Research Library Archives of Applied Science Research, 2014, 6 (4):74-77.

 

Shareef, Huma & Rizwani, Ghazala & Mahmood, Shaukat & Khursheed, Raheela & Zahid, Hina. (2012). In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 44. 1677-1680.

 

P Joshi, R Vajpai, S Jawed. 2017. Studies on Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Oxidation Property Present in Medicinal Plants of Genus Ficus. Epitome journal, 3.

 

Rajeswari, R & Sriidevi, M. (2014). Study of in vitro glucose uptake activity of isolated compounds from hydro alcoholic leaf extract of cardiospermum halicacabum linn. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 6. 181-185.

 

Rajasekaran, A., Govindarjan, A. and Ramasamy, A. (2016). Formulation and evaluation of topical herbal gel for the treatment of arthritis in animal model. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 52. 493-507.

 

Vetrichelvan T, Narasimhan CL, Venkatramani R. Anticonvulsant action of petroleum ether fraction of Cardiospermum halicacabum against electroshock induced Convulsion in rats. Anc Sci Life. 2000, 19(3-4) 174-175.

 

Sheeba, M.S. and Asha, V.V. (2009). Cardiospermum halicacabum ethanol extract inhibits LPS induced COX-2, TNF-?? and iNOS expression, which is mediated by NF-??B regulation, in RAW264.7 cells. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 124. 39-44.

 

Boonmars, Thidarut & Khunkitti, Watcharee & Sithithaworn, Paiboon & Fujimaki, Y. (2005). In vitro antiparasitic activity of extracts of Cardiospermum halicacabum against third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Parasitology research. 97. 417-419.

 

Sagadevan, P.; Suresh, S. N.; Rathishkumar, S.; Gayathri, S.; Vithya Eswari, D. Anticancer activity of methanolic leaf extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) and Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences. 2013, 4: 2983-2986.

 

Kukkar, M.R. & Saluja, A.K. & Sachdeva, P.D. & Kukkar, R.R. (2014). In vivo investigation of the neuroprotective potential of Cardiospermum halicacabum linn. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 6. 64-66.

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